Many women find advice on weight gain during pregnancy confusing. Although it's tempting to eat more when you're carrying your little one, being overweight and pregnant can put your baby at increased risk of complications like pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, miscarriage and stillbirth. Obese women are also more likely to need a Caesarean.
How much weight should I gain in pregnancy?Weight gain in pregnancy can vary hugely from woman to woman, but most pregnant women will gain between 22lbs to 26lbs whilst carrying their baby.
The majority of this weight gain will happen towards the end of the second trimester and into the third. Most of it will be attributed to the size of your baby but your body will also be storing fat ready to make breast milk for breastfeeding when your baby is born.
Women who are considerably under or overweight may have additional risks, such as diabetes, high blood pressure or premature labour, and will probably need closer antenatal care.
As an expectant mum it's important to eat a healthy, balanced diet. Some mums-to-be suffer from pregnancy symptoms such as morning sickness and have no appetite in the first three months of pregnancy, but others say they're always hungry. You may feel better eating little and often, but make sure your diet is rich in vitamins and minerals.
What should I do if I think I'm overweight during pregnancy?It's natural to feel bigger during pregnancy, but talk to your doctor or midwife if you're concerned you're overweight and pregnant, as they'll be able to give you advice.
However, dieting is not recommended during pregnancy as it could harm your baby. Instead, women are advised to eat healthily and do regular, gentle exercise like swimming and brisk walking.
The old saying that you need to 'eat for two' just isn't true - you don't need to eat any extra calories until the last three months of your pregnancy - and even then, you only need around an extra 200 calories per day.
Keeping healthy during pregnancy will benefit you and your baby - and will help you to get back to healthy weight after birth
Can you gain too little weight during pregnancy?If you don't gain enough weight during pregnancy this could result in some issues for your baby such as being born prematurely or having a low birth weight.
If your baby weighs less that 5.5lbs at birth this is classed as being underweight, so it's important get as many nutrients into your body as possible to try and avoid this happening.
Some women are naturally slim and will stay a similar size whilst they are pregnant which is fine, but if you are eight stone or under your doctor may have some special advice for you.
Is my bump too big?Women often compare their bumps with each other and then worry that theirs is 'too big' or 'too small'. The size is dictated by many things, not just how big or small your baby is. Some people think your bump size can depend on whether you're having a boy or girl, which for curious mums can be guessed at just 12 weeks with the nub theory. It may be the position in which your baby is lying, how tall you are, how many babies you've had before and, obviously, how many you're carrying!
But how will I know if my bump is the right size?At each ante-natal appointment, your midwife will feel your abdomen and measure the distance from the top of the uterus to your pubic bone. Each week of pregnancy will measure about 1cm (1/2 in) on your bump.
If she feels that your baby isn't growing as well as he should be, she may send you for a scan to measure the growth or for a consultant opinion. If your baby feels significantly larger than expected, she'll do a blood test to rule out diabetes (glucose load test). But remember, not all babies are average size, and there will always be some that are bigger and some that are smaller.
What if my baby is too large?Few babies are too big to push out. Babies tend to grow to 'fit' their mum's pelvis, but if they're genuinely too big to come out vaginally, your midwife will pick up on signs during labour. Sometimes babies have a 'deflexed head' during labour. This is when their chin isn't tucked onto their chest but is looking slightly up, which increases the dimension that has to go through the pelvis.
With good, strong contractions, however, the position can change. If your baby is 'too big' - a condition called cephalopelvic disproportion (CPD) - you'll need a C-section.
What can affect the growth of my baby?The source of nutrition and oxygen for your baby is the placenta, so if
this isn't working as efficiently as it should be, it can slow down the
growth. High blood pressure or pre-eclampsia can affect the placenta, as can smoking and malnutrition.
Diabetes in the mum-to-be can also affect a baby's growth, either slowing it down or, more commonly, causing it to become large before term. But diabetic mums will have close antenatal care and regular scans monitoring their baby's growth, development and wellbeing.