How to cook a turkey

Keeping a turkey moist when cooking in the oven is much easier than you may think...
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  • If you’re wondering how to cook a turkey for the perfect Christmas dinner or Thanksgiving meal, our simple step-by-step guide will help you achieve fantastic results every time when cooking this popular bird.

    Whether you’ve cooked turkey before or this is your first time, our easy guide will help you learn how to cook a turkey with confidence.

    The most important thing when it comes to how to cook a turkey is to buy the best quality turkey possible. These days, that doesn’t necessarily mean paying the highest price. Some of the most affordable and cheapest Christmas turkeys from well known supermarket brands also happen to be fantastic quality too.

    Slower growing breeds such as bronze turkeys will have a more developed flavour and firmer texture – so keep an eye out for these.

    How to defrost a turkey

    If buying a frozen turkey allow enough time for it to defrost fully in a cool place. There are usually defrosting instructions on the packet. If there are none, the NHS recommends to thaw your turkey in the fridge and that, in a fridge set at 4C, it will take 10 to 12 hours per kg. So, if your turkey weighs 4kg, it would take 40-48 hours.

    Because turkey is high in protein, it is important to defrost it safely in the fridge and not at room temperature. According to food hygiene regulations, you can leave high protein foods out for up to 90 mins. Therefore, you may want to do this just before cooking to ensure it is completely defrosted and that the turkey reaches room temperature before cooking.

    If time is running out and the bird is not fully defrosted you can immerse in a clean bucket of cold (not warm) water.

    How to prepare a turkey

    These days, if you’ve purchased your turkey from the supermarket, it will most likely be prepared for you. However, that’s not always the case and many people like to support local farms or producers so here are our top tips.

    Firstly, make sure there is nothing in the cavity that shouldn’t be there. Remove the giblets and neck. It’s usually only the giblets that you will find. You can discard the liver and gizzard but the giblets and neck are good for making the turkey gravy.

    Next, pat your turkey dry using a clean dry kitchen cloth or paper towels. At this point, we would fill the cavity as per Step 1 of our recipe below. It’s really important not to overfill the cavity as this will make the turkey take longer to cook. This makes the turkey meat more likely to dry out during cooking.

    You can then tie the turkey legs together with cooking twine – if you’re using any string or twine, make sure it’s suitable for culinary purposes and can withstand roasting. If the legs were tied together already you will probably find it easier to untie the legs before filling the cavity with herbs etc.

    Season the turkey well and then follow our recipe below. We also love Gordon Ramsay’s lemon, parsley and garlic turkey recipe.- its our most popular turkey recipe!

    What is dry-brining?

    The brining of turkey is a popular technique to try and make the meat of the bird as moist as possible. Wet brining is the most popular technique, which involves submerging your turkey in salted water (you can also add lots of herbs, spices and other flavourings like Nigella Lawson does). However, this often requires a big bucket and is arguably not the most hygienic way as you cannot usually fit a turkey in a bucket in the fridge.

    Dry brining is much easier and also requires much less storage space in the fridge. To dry brine your turkey, you need to rub it all over with salt and then place in a container (or a large bag suitable for food). This will, to begin with, draw the moisture from the turkey. The salty liquid that is then formed, will be reabsorbed by the turkey. This will also help the turkey skin to crisp up during roasting.

    If you do decide to dry brine, make the most of it and also rub the turkey with herbs and spices and include them in the container too. Festive flavours such as cloves, cinnamon and allspice all make great additions. As do lemon or clementine zest.

    What to do with giblets

    Giblets are a general term for offal found in a bird. For a turkey this is usually the liver and gizzard and they are usually put back in the cavity of the turkey before selling. Quite often the giblets are removed and discarded but you can use them to make your gravy even more flavourful.

    In days gone by, the giblets have also been used in the stuffing and to make pasta sauces. There is even a French recipe for giblets à la Bourguignonne.

    The most common use for these now is to include the giblets in the roasting tin with the turkey so that when you use the juices for the gravy, they add an even meatier flavour.

    How to remove the wishbone

    The wishbone is a forked bone which is found between the neck and breast of a bird. It is commonly associated with the tradition of cracking the wishbone – two people split a wishbone together whilst making a wish; the winner gets good fortune and their wish may even come true! This technique started with the Ancient Romans and is still continuing today.

    You certainly don’t need to remove the wishbone before cooking the turkey but culinary schools across the globe have been teaching the technique for generations. It also frees up more space for stuffing, if placing it under the skin.

    To remove it, cut either side of the wishbone with a sharp knife and remove the bone from the flesh all around the wishbone. Once you have separated all the flesh from the bone it should pull away easily.

    How to cook a turkey


    • 5-6kg turkey, thawed if frozen and any giblets removed
    • 1/2 lemon
    • ½ onion, cut in half
    • A few sprigs fresh sage, parsley and rosemary plus extra to garnish
    • 75g butter, softened

    To make the herb stuffing:

    • 1 onion, chopped
    • 50g butter
    • 100g fresh white breadcrumbs
    • 3tbsp chopped fresh mixed herbs such as rosemary (leaves only), parsley and sage
    • Finely grated zest 1/2 lemon
    • 1 egg

    How to cook a turkey: Step 1

    How to cook a turkey: Step 1

    Preheat the oven to 190C/375F/Fan 170C/Gas Mark 5. Make the stuffing by frying the onion in the butter for 5 mins to soften. Remove from the heat and stir in the breadcrumbs, herbs, lemon zest and egg. Mix well and season with salt and freshly ground pepper. Place the turkey in a roasting tin or dish. If the legs are tied together remove the string and open them out. Place the lemon, onion and herbs into the body cavity but don’t pack it too tightly.

    How to cook a turkey: Step 2

    How to cook a turkey: Step 2

    Lift the flap of skin covering the neck cavity and spoon the stuffing under the skin. Smooth the skin back over the stuffing and tuck underneath the turkey. Any remaining stuffing can be spooned into a dish, dotted with a little butter and baked for 30 mins.

    How to cook a turkey: Step 3

    How to cook a turkey: Step 3

    Break the softened butter into pieces and dot over the turkey. Season with plenty of salt and freshly ground pepper.

    How to cook a turkey: Step 4

    How to cook a turkey: Step 4

    Loosely cover the turkey with a large sheet of foil and scrunch it around the sides of the tin to seal. This will help to keep the steam inside the foil as it cooks, keeping the turkey moist. Calculate the cooking time allowing 20 mins per kg plus an extra 70 mins (a 5-6kg bird will take approx 3-31/2hrs. Baste the turkey every hour with the cooking juices and remove the foil for the final 30 mins of cooking time.

    To test if the turkey is cooked the juices should run clear, not pink, when a skewer is inserted into the thickest part of the thigh. Remove from the oven, recover with the foil and leave to stand for 30 mins to 1 hour before carving. Garnish with fresh herbs to serve.

    How long to cook a turkey

    The amount of time your turkey will need to cook for will depend on its size. It’s important to cook it for long enough that it’s safe – and nice – to eat but not so long that it’s dry and hard to eat.

    READ MORE: How to calculate turkey cooking times by size and weight

    As a general rule, in an oven set at 180C/Gas 4, a turkey will need to be cooked for approximately 20 mins per kg plus an extra 1hr 10 mins. For example, a 4kg turkey will require 2 hrs 30mins. We would then suggest resting for up to 45mins before carving. Resting the meat is important for all the juices to be reabsorbed into the meat to make the turkey even more succulent.

    How to keep your turkey moist

    To keep the meat moist and succulent when cooking a turkey are the turkey cooking times. It’s important not to overcook the meat and once it’s cooked leave it to rest for at least 30 mins or preferably about an hour. The turkey will stay hot and the meat will relax and tenderise and be easier to carve. Resting the turkey also frees up the oven for you to cook the roast potatoes, stuffing and sausages.

    READ MORE: How to carve a turkey: The quick and easy way to carve a turkey

    To ensure the turkey cooks evenly, remove any string or bands that tie the legs together. This allows the heat to flow much more freely into the turkey cavity. This is also why the cavity of the turkey should never be packed with stuffing, there is a danger that the temperature reached inside the bird won’t be hot enough to kill off any bacteria.

    Any stuffing should be placed in the neck cavity under the flap of skin, or roasted separately in a tin or rolled into balls and baked.

    Christmas turkey cooking guide: Turkey cooking times by size and weight

    How to store a turkey: raw and cooked

    Most turkeys that are packaged will include storage instructions and we would recommend that you always follow these.

    How to store raw turkey in the freezer

    Before a turkey is cooked, it must either be kept in the fridge or the freezer. If you buy the turkey frozen then it is best to keep it in the freezer until you need to defrost it. If you buy it chilled but there is still several weeks until Christmas then the turkey should be frozen, You will need to ensure you wrap it up in freezable food wrap or place in a container suitable for freezing. This is important to stop the meat getting freezer burn, which will dry the meat out and damage it.

    How to store raw turkey in the fridge

    If you purchase the turkey a few days before Christmas or you need to defrost it, then you will need to place it in the fridge. The fridge should be set on or around 4C. Again, you should keep the turkey wrapped up to stop it from drying out. Remember, you should only defrost meat once so once you have taken it out freezer and brought it to fridge temperature it should not be re-frozen.

    How to store cooked turkey in the fridge

    Once the turkey has been cooked and you’ve finished carving and eating it, it will again need to be placed in the fridge or freezer. Cooked meat must not be left out at room temperature as this can cause harmful bacteria to grow. Cool the meat within 90 mins then pop back in the fridge or freezer.

    How to store cooked turkey in the freezer

    If you freeze it, it’s sensible to freeze in batches so that you can just remove what you need as and when you cook with it. Once defrosted, they should be eaten with 24 hours. If refrigerated it should be used within a few days. In the freezer, wrapped properly, it should last for up to 3 months.

    If you’re looking for inspiration, we have some great ideas on what to cook with leftover turkey.